iOS deployment Alpha & Beta Channel similar to Android

Android has Alpha and Beta channel release https://developer.android.com/distribute/googleplay/developer-console.html#publish

Is there something similar to that for iOS app deployments?

iOS Beta releases (closed, managed test groups) are done with a tool called TestFlight - it was a third party company and Apple bought it. It isn’t clear what the difference between Alpha and Beta is on that page you linked.